Grades and study results
Secondary education study results
The boards make use of their own grading systems. Their grading system is often indicated on the reverse of the diploma and/or grades list. In addition, the boards usually publish their grading system on their website, for example in their syllabus. For instance, see the following websites:
- the grading system from the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE);
- syllabi from the Council for the Indian School Certificate Examination (CISCE) with (among others) information about the grading system;
- the grading system from the Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE).
The boards sometimes use letter grades and associated percentages, but numbers and/or classifications are also used. The highest possible grade or where the line is drawn between a pass and fail grade can also vary depending on the subject.
In case of secondary education diplomas, we check if students took relevant subjects. A subject is considered a relevant subject in case of the folllowing:
- The student has passed the board exam of that subject; and
- The subject countains enough theory.
Students can take exams via the board and/or their school. We only count board exam subjects toward a credential evaluation. We do not count subjects for which students have only taken a school exam. In the table below, we mention the subjects that do not count toward a credential evaluation of CBSE and CISCE diplomas.
|Board||Subjects that do not count toward a credential evaluation|
Not all boards indicate equally clearly for which subjects only a school exam is administered. In such cases, this is only revealed by the grade list, for example if no grade appears next to the name of the subject. In other cases, it may be necessary to search the board’s syllabus to find out in which subjects students only take school exams. Most boards publish their syllabus on their website.
Theory in a subject
Above, we mentioned that we only count board exam subjects toward a credential evaluation. However, not every board exam subject can be counted toward a credential evaluation. It depends upon the ratio between theory and practice as well. The following types of subjects exist:
- theoretical subjects (subjects which consist only of theoretical instruction);
- subjects with both a theoretical and a practical component;
- subjects that include little or no theoretical instruction.
We usually do not count subjects in the last category towards a credential evaluation. We often do count theoretical subjects and subjects with both theory and practice. We call these relevant subjects (for a credential evaluation).
Please note: information about the ratio between theory and practice and a description of the content of courses can be found in the board's syllabus. Usually boards publish their syllabus on their website.
Secondary education documents
For secondary education, a diploma and grades list issued by a recognised board are required. Documents from the secondary school itself are not sufficient. It is often possible to check results on the website of the board (which awarded the diploma).
Higher education study results
The University Grants Commission (UGC) advises higher education institutions to use the following grading system:
While this system is in use at multiple institutions, it is not compulsory. Many institutions have developed their own grading system.
Some institutions convert the results into classifications, which are indicated on the diploma in addition to the grades. The following is an example of such an classification system:
Instead of ‘division’, the term ‘class’ is also frequently used. Occasionally, classifications are not based on a percentage, but on the cumulative grade point average (CGPA). Information about the assessment system and/or classifications and how these are calculated can usually be found on the institution’s website. This information may also be found on the grades list (or the reverse thereof).
Higher education documents
For higher education, students must present all of their diplomas, including the grade lists. If students pursued their study programmes at a college, they must present the diplomas and grades lists from the associated university. For autonomous colleges, only the diploma has to have been issued by the university – the grades lists may come from the autonomous college.
Please note: it may be possible to check study results on the institution’s website.