• Country: Turkey, officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti). The Republic of Turkey was proclaimed in 1923 under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. In his vision, education had to be made available to the entire population. The Law on Unification of Education was adopted in 1924. Compulsory education was also introduced at that time, although the government did not possess the means for rigorous enforcement. It was not until the 1960s that serious attempts were made to make primary education generally accessible.
  • Responsible for education: the Ministry of National Education (Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı), but higher education falls under the Yüksek Ögretim Kurulu (YÖK), the Council of Higher Education (CoHE).
  • Bologna process: since 2001, Turkey has participated in the biannual Bologna Ministerial Conferences and, therefore, in the Bologna process. More information is available on the website of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) and the website of the YÖK.
  • International treaties: Turkey signed the Lisbon Recognition Convention in 2004, and ratified it in 2007.
  • Compulsory education: ages 6-18 years; 8 years of primary education and 4 years of secondary education, since 2013 (before 2013 only primary education was compulsory).
  • Language of instruction: usually Turkish. Some higher education programmes are given in English.
  • School year: September to June (2 semesters).
  • Academic year: September to June (2 semesters).